The pantoum is a poetic style which involves the interlocking of four-line stanzas in which lines 2 and 4 of one stanza are used as lines 1 and 3 of the next. The lines may be of any length, and the poem does not have a specific number of stanzas. Usually, but not always, the paired lines are also rhymed. The form may be ended either by picking up lines 1 and 3 from the first stanza as lines 2 and 4 of the last, and thus closing the circle of the poem, or by closing the poem with a rhymed couplet.
This form is suited for the circling obsession of grief — an excellent example is Laure-Anne Bosselaar’s Stillbirth.
Villanelle: composed of repeating lines, separated in their first appearance in the opening triplet, then weaving alternately through & coming together at the end in the closing couplet.
For specific line rules see http://www.webexhibits.org/poetry/explore_classic_villanelle_make.html
“If I could tell you” by W. H. Auden is an excellent example.
Sonnet: a fixed poetic form, consisting of 14 lines, usually iambic pentameter, in English.
Italian or Petrarchan sonnet: the 14 lines are arranged in an octet (8 lines) rhyming abba abba and a sestet (6 lines) rhyming either cdecde or cdcdcd.
English or Shakespearean sonnet: three quatrains rhyming abab cdcd efef and a closing rhymed heroic couplet.
Spenserian sonnet: the three quatrains are linked by their rhyme scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee
Odes: there are three types of odes and they are usually written about someone or something the poet admires or loves. According to Thrall and Hibbard’s Handbook to Literature, it is “Any strain of enthusiastic and exalted lyrical verse directed to a fixed purpose, and dealing progressively with one dignified theme. In manner, the ode is an elaborate lyric, expressed in dignified language, sincere, intellectual in tone,”
For example, “Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood” by William Wordsworth, “Ode to the Confederate Dead” by Allen Tate and Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind”
Epitaph: a commemorative inscription on a tomb written in praise, or reflecting the life, of a deceased person. For an example, see the epitaph written for Ben Johnson’s son. http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/epitaphs.html
Lyric: consists of a poem, such as a sonnet or an ode,that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. The poem addresses the reader directly, portraying deep feelings, a specific state of mind, and perceptions. See the following for examples:
Ballad: tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend and usually has a repeated refrain with its focus generally love. A ballad is often about love and often sung. Stanzas are generally two or four lines with the last words of the second and fourth lines rhyming. For an examp^le, see: http://www.webexhibits.org/poetry/explore_famous_ballad_examples.html
Clerihew: a comic verse consisting of two couplets and a specific rhyming scheme, aabb. It usually deals with a character within the first rhyme. In most cases, the first line names the person, and the second line ends with something that rhymes with the name of the person. http://www.poetpatriot.com/poems-clerihews.htm has some examples.
Didactic: is a form of poetry intended for instruction such as for knowledge or to teach. The Raven is a good example: it teaches devotion. http://bigbuffy.weebly.com/didactic-poem.html
Ghazal: is made up like an odd numbered chain of couplets, where each couplet is an independent poem. It has a refrain of one to three words that repeat, and an inline rhyme that comes before the refrain.
Lines 1 and 2, then every second line, has this refrain and inline rhyme, and the last couplet should refer to the authors pen-name… The rhyming scheme is AA bA cA dA eA etc.
Terza rima : a type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line “tercets”. http://www.webexhibits.org/poetry/explore_classic_tercet_examples.html
Carpe diem: a Latin expression that means “seize the day” and so Carpe diem poems have this as their theme.
Allegory: a narrative having a second meaning beneath the surface one – a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. Examples of allegories are the Fairie Queen by Edmund Spenser, Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan and Young Goodman Brown by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Imagery: draw the reader into poetic experiences by touching on the images and senses which the reader already knows; this serves to intensify the impact of the work.